Study Guide for Chapter 18 The Age of Enlightenment Terms and People to Know
Ch18 Sec1 (Pages 586-597)
philosophes Francois-Marie Arouet Voltaire Letters on the English Elements of the Philosophy of Newton Candide
print culture Isaac Newton John Locke An Essay Concerning Human Understanding tabula rasa Unitarians
Samuel Johnson The Spectator Joseph Addison Richard Steele Freemasons Alexander Pope public opinion
The Encyclopedia Jean Le Rond d'Alembert
Ch18 Sec2 (pages 597-603)
William Robertson Scottish Kirk Deism Christianity not Mysterious John Toland Jean Calas Treatise on Tolerance Gotthold Lessing Nathan the Wise Philosophical Dictionary David Hume Of Miracles Inquiry into Human Nature The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Edward Gibbon Baron d'Holbach Julien Offray de La Mettrie
Immanuel Kant Religion within the Limits of Reason Alone Baruch Spinoza Moses Mendelsohn Ethics Theologico-Political Treatise Jerusalem; or, On Ecclesiastical Power and Jusaism Barthelemy d'Herbelot
Bibliotheque orientale Oriental Library Simon Ockley History of the Saracens George Sale Qur'an Fanaticism or Mohammed the Prophet The Persian Letters Montesquieu Spirit of the Laws Lady Mary Wortley Montagu
Turkish Embassy Letters
Ch18 Sec3 (pages 603-610)
Social Science Cesare Beccaria On Crimes and Punishments physiocrats Francois Quesnay
Pierre Dupont de Nemours Adam Smith Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations laissez-faire
four-stage theory Charles Louis de Secondat, baron de Montesquieu Bordeaux Academy of Science The Persian Letters
Spirit of the Laws Jean-Jacques Rousseau Discourse on the Moral Effects of the Arts and Sciences
Discourse on the Origin of Inequality The Social Contract General Will Marie-Therese Geoffrin Julie de Lespinasse
Claudine de Tencin salons saloniers Marquise de Pompadour Vindication of the Rights of Women
Ch18 Sec4 (pages 610-623)
History of the Russian Empire under Peter the Great Enlightened Absolutism or Despotism Frederick II ( The Great ) Joseph II Toleration patent of Austria Josephinism Leopold II Peter the Great Catherine I Peter II Anna Ivan VI Elizabeth Peter III Anhalt Zerbst Catherine the Great Charter of the Nobility Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainardji
First Partition of Poland Danzig Corridor Galicia Second Partition of 1793 Third Partition of 1795
Ideas to remember
How did the Enlightenment change basic Western attitudes toward reform, faith, and reason. What were the major formative influences on the philosophes?
Why did the Philosophes consider organized religion to be their greatets enemy? What were the basic tenets of deism? How did Jewish writers contribute to Enlightenment thinking about religion?
What were the attitudes of the philosophes towards women? What were Rousseau's views on women? What were Mary Wollstonecraft's criticisms of Rousseau's views.
Compare and contrast of the mercantilists with those of Adam Smith in his book The Wealth of Nations.
Discuss the political views of Montesquieu and Rousseau. Compare and contrast their two views on government and the individual.
Describe and explain the Enlightened monarchs. Hw did they support the Enlightenment and how did they ultimately betray the ideals of the Enlightenment.