Study Guide for Chapter 18 –The Age of Enlightenment  Terms and People to Know


Ch18 Sec1 (Pages 586-597)

philosophes  Francois-Marie Arouet   Voltaire   Letters on the English   Elements of the Philosophy of Newton   Candide 

print culture   Isaac Newton    John Locke   An Essay Concerning Human Understanding   tabula rasa   Unitarians 

Samuel Johnson   The Spectator  Joseph Addison   Richard Steele  Freemasons  Alexander Pope   public opinion  

The Encyclopedia   Jean Le Rond d'Alembert    


Ch18 Sec2 (pages 597-603)

William Robertson   Scottish Kirk    Deism    Christianity not Mysterious    John Toland   Jean Calas   Treatise on Tolerance       Gotthold Lessing   Nathan the Wise   Philosophical Dictionary   David Hume     Of Miracles   Inquiry into Human Nature  The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire  Edward Gibbon Baron d'Holbach  Julien Offray de La Mettrie  

Immanuel Kant   Religion within the Limits of Reason Alone     Baruch Spinoza     Moses Mendelsohn    Ethics    Theologico-Political Treatise   Jerusalem; or, On Ecclesiastical Power and Jusaism   Barthelemy d'Herbelot 

Bibliotheque orientale   Oriental Library   Simon Ockley  History of the Saracens   George Sale   Qur'an    Fanaticism or Mohammed the Prophet   The Persian Letters   Montesquieu  Spirit of the Laws      Lady Mary Wortley Montagu 

Turkish Embassy Letters              


Ch18 Sec3 (pages 603-610)

Social Science   Cesare Beccaria    On Crimes and Punishments    physiocrats   Francois Quesnay  

Pierre Dupont de Nemours   Adam Smith    Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations   laissez-faire 

four-stage theory   Charles Louis de Secondat, baron de Montesquieu   Bordeaux Academy of Science   The Persian Letters

Spirit of the Laws    Jean-Jacques Rousseau   Discourse on the Moral Effects of the Arts and Sciences    

Discourse on the Origin of Inequality    The Social Contract   General Will   Marie-Therese Geoffrin   Julie de Lespinasse

Claudine de Tencin    salons   saloniers    Marquise de Pompadour   Vindication of the Rights of Women  

Mary Wollstonecraft  


Ch18 Sec4 (pages 610-623)

History of the Russian Empire under Peter the Great    Enlightened Absolutism or Despotism    Frederick II  ( The Great )    Joseph II   Toleration patent of Austria   Josephinism   Leopold II   Peter the Great  Catherine I   Peter II    Anna   Ivan VI   Elizabeth    Peter III   Anhalt Zerbst    Catherine the Great   Charter of the Nobility   Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainardji  

First Partition of Poland    Danzig Corridor    Galicia   Second Partition of 1793    Third Partition of 1795           


Ideas to remember

• How did the Enlightenment change basic Western attitudes toward reform, faith, and reason.  What were the major formative influences on the philosophes?

• Why did the Philosophes consider organized religion to be their greatets enemy? What were the basic tenets of deism? How did Jewish writers contribute to Enlightenment thinking about religion?

• What were the attitudes of the philosophes towards women? What were Rousseau's views on women? What were Mary Wollstonecraft's criticisms of Rousseau's views. 

•  Compare and contrast of the mercantilists with those of Adam Smith in his book The Wealth of Nations.

•  Discuss the political views of Montesquieu and Rousseau. Compare and contrast their two views on government and the individual.

•  Describe and explain the Enlightened monarchs. Hw did they support the Enlightenment and how did they ultimately betray the ideals of the Enlightenment.


  1. Describe and explain the ideas of the Philosophes. Compare and contrast the views of four of the philosophes of the Enlightenment. ( thesis statement should be underlined in all essays).
  2. Describe and explain the Enlightenment and the role that women played in expanding European thought and ideas.
  3. Describe and explain the Enlightened monarchs. How did they support the ideals of the Enlightenment and how did they betray the Enlightenment?