Study Guide for Chapter 31 – The West at the Dawn of the 21st Century           Terms and People to Know
Ch 31 Sec1 (Pages 1084-1093)
Decolonization   Jean-Marie Le Pen   Jacques Chirac   “guest workers”    Welfare State   William B. Beveridge  Clement Attlee
Simone de Beauvoir     The Second Sex   Courage   Emma—Magazine by Women for Women  Spare Rib  European Union 
Treaty of Maasstricht   
Ch 31 Sec2 (pages 1093-1101)
Third International  The God that Failed   Arthur Koestler   Darkness at Noon   George Orwell  Homage to Catalonia   Jean-Paul Sartre
Antonio Gramsci   Letters from Prison   Philosophic Manuscripts   German Ideology   existentialism  Soren Kierkegaard 
Fear and Trembling  Either/Or   Concluding Unscientific Postscript   Martin Heidegger   Karl Jaspers   Albert Camus  Being and Time 
Nausea    Being and Nothing    The Stranger     The Plague   student rebellions   Americanization  Club of Rome   The Green Party  
The Arab Oil Embargo  Green Movement    Chernobyl Disaster         

Ch 31 Sec3 (pages 1101-1106)
Christian Heritage    Martin Niemoller  Dietrich Bonhoeffer    Christian Democratic Parties   Karl Barth  
A Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans    Paul Tillich   Rudolf Bultmann    John Robinson   Honest to God   C.S. Lewis 
The Screwtape Letters  Pope John XXIII   Twenty-first Ecumenical Council    Vatican II   Pope Paul VI   John Paul II   Karol Wojtyla
John Paul I   National Cash Register  Remington Rand    International Business Machines Corporation   ENIAC   
Moore Laboratories
Institute for Advanced Research  Xerox Corporation    Apple Computer Corporation          
Ch 31 Sec4 (pages  1106-1120)
Radical Islamism  Gamal Abdul Nasser   Wahhabism   Iranian Revolution   Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini  Shah Rheza Pahlavi
Islamic Fundamentalism   Muslim Reformism  Anwar Sadat  jihad   Taliban   Al Qaeda   madrasas   Persian Gulf War  Saddam Hussein
Osama Bin Laden  USS Cole   September 11, 2001  George W. Bush      

Ideas to remember
•In what ways was the 20th century more of a time of turmoil than the 19th century? How did the extreme conditions of the last century affect intellectual life?
•Discuss the changes in the pursuit and diffusion of knowledge in the 20th century. What has been the effect of the communications revolution? the boom in universities? Has Western intellectual life become more unified or less so? Why?
• Discuss the contributions of Nietzsche and Kierkegaard to existentialism. What beliefs are central to all existentialist thinkers? What does Sartre mean by the statement that existentialism is a philosophy of anguish and despair?
• "Existentialism is uniquely a 20th century movement. It is of its time and could not have belonged to any earlier period. To future observers, it will appear as the intellectual movement that best sums up the spirit of the age." Discuss this statement. To what extent do you agree or disagree? Be specific.
• How do you account for the continued vitality of Christianity in a secular age? What role should the church play in the modern world? Should it involve itself with the political affairs of the world? In this regard, discuss John Paul II's papacy. Will Church and State come into conflict again?
• How would you define feminism? How has recent feminism differed from feminism in the early 20th century? What political successes can women point to over the decades? What actions have women taken in the West to achieve personal independence?
•How would you define Radical Islamism? What are its origins and its goals? Why has Islamic reformism been linked to terrorism?
•Discuss the development of computer technology in the 20th  century. What were the pivotal inventions that proved to be the catalysts of change? How have computers transformed private life?