Study Guide for Chapter 25 –The Birth of Modern European Thought   Terms and People to Know
Ch 25 Sec1 (Pages 852-859)
Le Petit Journal  Daily Mail  Daily Express  William Whewell   Auguste Comte  positivism   The Positive Philosophy
Beatrice Webb  Thomas Henry Huxley   Ernst Haeckel  Charles Darwin  On the Origin of Species  Alfred Russel Wallace natural selection  Gregor Mendel  The Descent of Man  Herbert Spencer  social Darwinism    
Ch 25 Sec2 (pages 859-864)
David Friedrich Strauss  The Life of Jesus  Julius Wellhausen  Ernst Renan  William Robertson Smith  William Paley
Natural Theology  Charles Lyell  Friedrich Nietzche  The Education Act of 1870  The Education Act of 1902  Jules Ferry
Pierre Waldeck-Rousseau  Catholic Center Party  The May Laws   Kulturkampf  Lady of Lourdes  Pope Pius IX 
Syllabus of Errors  The First Vatican Council  papal infallibility  Leo XIII   Thomas Aquinas  Rerum Novarum  Pius X
Ernest Renan   Max Weber  Jamal al-din Al-Afghani  Salafi  Mahdist Movement  Sanussiya movement
Wahhabi movement  
Ch 25 Sec3 (pages 864-875)
Ernst Mach  Science of Mechanics  Henri Poincare  Hans Vaihinger  Wilhelm Roentgen Henri Becquerel  J.J. Thompson  Ernest Rutherford   Max Planck   Albert Einstein  relativity   Werner Heisenberg  Marie and Pierre Curie  realist  naturalist  Charles Dickens  Honore de Balzac  George Eliot  Mary Anne Evans  Gustave Flaubert  Madame Bovary  Emile Zola 
Claude Bernard  Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine  Germinal  Henrik Ibsen  A Doll's House  Ghosts 
The Master Builder  George Bernard Shaw   Mrs. Warren's Profession  Arms and the Man   Man and Superman 
Androcles and the Lion  modernism  Walter Pater  James Abbott McNeill Whistler  Nocturnes  The Rite of Spring 
Igor Stravinsky   Pablo Picasso  Cubism  New Scuplture  Bloomsbury Group   Virginia Woolf   Leonard Woolf  Vanessa Bell
Duncan Grant  Lytton Strachey   John Maynard Keynes   Eminent Victorians   Keynesian economics  Mrs. Dalloway
To The Lighthouse  A Room of One's Own  Marcel Proust   In Search of Times Past ( A la Recherche du temps perdu) Thomas Mann  Buddenbrooks The Magic Mountain  Ulysses  James Joyce   Friedrich Nietzsche  The Birth of Tragedy 
Thus Spake Zarathustra   Overman(Ubermensch)  Beyond Good And Evil   The Genealogy of Morals   Psychoanalysis
Sigmund Freud  Jean Martin Charcot  Josf Breuer   Studies in Hysteria   The Interpretation of Dreams id  ego  superego 
Carl Jung  Modern Man in Serach of a Soul  Max Weber  The Protestant Ethic  and the Spirit of Capitalism   Gustave LeBon  Emile Durkheim  Georges Sorel  Vilfredo Pareto  Graham Wallas  Reflections on Violence  Racism Count Arthur de Gobineau  Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races   Houston Stewart Chamberlain  Foundations of the Nineteenth Century  
Paul de Lagarde  Julius Langbehn  Karl Lueger Christian Socialist Party  Adolf Stoecker  Zionist Theodor Herzl
The Jewish State                           
Ch 25 Sec4 (pages 875-883)
Karl Vogt   Descent of Man   Karen Horney  Melanie Klein    Contagious Diseases Act  
The Ladies' National Association for the Repeal of the Contagious Diseases Act   Josephine Butler 
General Austrian Women's Association  Auguste Ficke  The Mother's Protection League   Ellen Key   The Century of the Child
The Renaissance of Motherhood   Marie Stopes   
Ideas to remember
• Describe the theory of natural selection of Darwin and Wallace and its origins. What were its effects on humanity's view of the universe and its place in it? on theories of ethics? on Christianity? How did Darwin's ideas on natural selection become associated with racial arguments and social Darwinism?
  How and why did Christianity come under attack in the late 19th century? How well did the churches respond? Discuss the policies of Pius IX, Leo XIII and Pius X. During a period of attack upon the church, how do you account for the resilience of the papacy?
• How had the social conditions of literature changed in the late 19th century? What was the significance of the explosion of literary matter?
• How do you account for the rise of literary realism? How was it influenced by science?  How did the realists determine middle-class morality? How does realism differ from modernism?
• What were the major changes in science's view of the nature of the universe and humanity's place in it between 1850 and 1914?
• What are the basic teachings of Freudian psychoanalysis? on sexuality? on the unconscious? on aggression? Why was Freud so controversial in his day? What was his view of repression?