Study Guide for Chapter 14 –New Directions in Thought and Culture in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries Terms and People to Know
Ch14 Sec1 (Pages 449-454)Queen Christina Scientific Revolution Nicolaus Copernicus On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres. Ptolemy Almagest Ptolemaic Sytems geocentrism Aristotle epicycle deferent heliocentric Tycho Brahe Johannes Kepler The New Astronomy Galileo Galilei The Starry Messenger Letters on Sunspots University of Padua University of Florence Grand Duke of Tuscany Isaac Newton The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy Principia Mathematica Laws of Motion gravity empirical data
Ch14 Sec2 (pages 454-462)Francis Bacon empiricism The Advancement of Learning Novum Organum The New Atlantis Rene Descartes analytic geometry Rational Deduction Discourse on Method Meditations scientific induction Thomas Hobbes William Harvey Thucydides History of the Peloponnesian War Leviathan Social Contract John Locke Anthony Ashley Cooper Earl of Shaftesbury First Treatise of Government Second Treatise of Government Letter Concerning Toleration Essay Concerning Human Understanding tabula rasa
Ch14 Sec3 (pages 462-470)The Royal Society of London The Academy of Experiments French Academy of Science Berlin Academy of Science projectors Enlightenment Queen Christina of Sweden Margaret Cavendish Observations Upon Experimental Philosophy Grounds of Natural Philosophy Maria Cunitz Elisabetha and Johannes Hevelius Maria Winkelmann Gottfried Kirch Description of a New World, Called the Blazing World Bernard de Fontenelle Conversations on the Plurality of Worlds Francesco Algaroti Newtonianism for Ladies Emilie du Chatelet Galileo's Trial Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina Pope Urban VIII Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems Pope John Paul II Blaise Pascal Pensees Jansenists Port-Royal physico-theology John Ray The Wisdom of God Manifested in his Works of Creation
• Describe and explain the theories of Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, Bacon, Newton and Brahe. Which ones made the most significant contributions?
• Compare and contrast the thoughts of Pascal with Hobbes, and Locke with Newton
• Describe and explain the role that women played in the achievements of the Scientific Revolution.
• Describe and explain the phenomenon of Witchcraft and witch hunts during the Age of the Scientific Enlightenmentf