Study Guide for Chapter 14 –New Directions in Thought and Culture in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries       Terms and People to Know

 Ch14 Sec1 (Pages 449-454)

Queen Christina   Scientific Revolution   Nicolaus Copernicus  On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres.   Ptolemy  Almagest   Ptolemaic Sytems  geocentrism    Aristotle   epicycle   deferent  heliocentric    Tycho Brahe    Johannes Kepler    The New  Astronomy    Galileo Galilei   The Starry Messenger    Letters on Sunspots   University of Padua University of Florence   Grand Duke of Tuscany    Isaac Newton The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy    Principia Mathematica   Laws of Motion    gravity   empirical data

Ch14 Sec2 (pages 454-462)

Francis Bacon   empiricism    The Advancement of Learning    Novum Organum   The New Atlantis    Rene Descartes   analytic geometry    Rational Deduction    Discourse on Method    Meditations   scientific induction  Thomas Hobbes   William Harvey    Thucydides    History of the Peloponnesian War    Leviathan     Social Contract    John Locke    Anthony Ashley Cooper   Earl of  Shaftesbury    First Treatise of Government   Second Treatise of Government  Letter Concerning Toleration    Essay Concerning Human Understanding   tabula rasa

Ch14 Sec3 (pages 462-470)

The Royal Society of London    The Academy of Experiments    French Academy of Science  Berlin Academy of Science  projectors  Enlightenment   Queen Christina of Sweden  Margaret Cavendish   Observations Upon Experimental Philosophy   Grounds of Natural Philosophy   Maria Cunitz   Elisabetha and Johannes Hevelius   Maria Winkelmann   Gottfried Kirch  Description of a New World, Called the Blazing World   Bernard de Fontenelle   Conversations on the Plurality of Worlds  Francesco Algaroti  Newtonianism for Ladies    Emilie du Chatelet   Galileo's Trial   Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina   Pope Urban VIII  Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems   Pope John Paul II    Blaise Pascal    Pensees    Jansenists   Port-Royal  physico-theology   John Ray    The Wisdom of God Manifested in his Works of Creation  

Ch14 Sec4 (pages 470-477)
Witch-hunts  panics    malificium   sabbats   misogyny   The Hammer of Witches   Heinrich Kramer  Jacob Springer   Innocent VIII

Ideas to remember

• What were the main ways in which the scientific view of the universe in 1700 differed rom the scientific view of the universe in 1500? What specifically had humans learned? 

• Describe and explain the theories of Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, Bacon, Newton and Brahe. Which ones made the most significant contributions?

• Compare and contrast the thoughts of  Pascal with Hobbes, and Locke with Newton

  Describe and explain the role that women played in the achievements of the Scientific Revolution.

• Describe and explain the phenomenon of Witchcraft and witch hunts during the Age of the Scientific Enlightenmentf